One depends on instinct, which all species have. There is no need for the doctor to cure this type of illness, which entails responding to hunger, thirst, cold and fatigue.
The second, requires deep thought and analysis and entails subduing and resisting the ailment, and moderating the patients condition (temperament), which can result from fever, heat, coldness, dryness, or a combination of these symptoms. These ailments have two types of causes: physical and one that relates to temperament. These ailments are the result of a physical cause or are due to changes that affect the mood and the temper (of the body). The difference between the two types is that the ailments of the temperament occur after the physical causes are eliminated. Their effects remain and alter the temperament. The ailments that are caused by physical elements have their causes with them. In these cases of physical disease we should look at the cause first, the ailment second and the cure third.
Further, deep thought and careful analysis are also required concerning repelling and removing the ailments that affect the various organs and cause some alterations in the organs whether in the shape, cavity, vessel, roughness, touch, number, bone, and so forth. When these organs, which collectively constitute the body, are working properly, they are described as being connected. Otherwise, they are described as having lost their proper connectivity.
These ailments that affect and alter the organs are included in the general ailments that affect the body.
As we have stated, these same ailments negatively affect the mood and temperament. The changes that accompany such ailments come in eight types, four simple types and four compound types. The simple types include coldness, hotness,wetness and dryness. The compound types include being hot and wet, hot and dry, cold and wet or cold and dry. The causes of these ailments are either physical or due to changes in the mood or temperament as we have stated.
Also, there are three states that the body can be in normal, abnormal and in the middle (between normal and abnormal). When the state of the body is normal, the body is healthy. The second state occurs when the body is ill, while the third is in the middle, as one extreme does not become the opposite extreme except after passing through a middle stage.
There are internal reasons for the abnormal state the body passes through, for the body consists of coldness, hotness, wetness and dryness. Also, there are external reasons for the abnormal state, which could find the body susceptible and affect it.
The potential harm inflicted on the body could result from bad temperament that was not moderated, an ailment that attacks an organ, or a general weakness in the overall power of the body, or even the soul, which sustains such power. The ailment could be caused by an increase in what should not be increased, or a decrease in what should not be decreased. Also, a break in the connection could be the cause, where the connection is essential, or due to a connection between that which should not be connected. The ailment could also occur due to an extension of what should not be extended or an alteration and change in the shape or place of some of the body organs.
The doctor is able to distinguish between what might harm the body when connected and what should be connected. The doctor also distinguishes between what might cause harm if increased and what might cause harm if decreased. The doctor helps bring about good health or what preserves good health, and helps fend off the ailment with its antidote (opposite) or by using a corrective diet. You will see that all these guidelines are met by the guidance and advice of the Prophet a, by Alläh’s Will,Power and Support.