Description of the Pharaoh
The pharaoh who ruled Egypt was a tyrant who oppressed the descendants of Jacob (pbuh), known as the children of Israel (Bani Israel). He used every means to demean and disgrace them. They were kept in bondage and forced to work for him for small wages or nothing. Under this system the people obeyed and worshipped the pharaoh, and the ruling class carried out his orders, thereby authorizing his tyranny and crazy whims.
The pharaoh wanted the people to obey him only, and to believe in the gods of his invention. Perhaps, during that time, there were many classes of people who did not believe in or practice polytheism; however, they kept this to themselves and outwardly did as they were expected to do,without revolting or revealing themselves to anyone.
Thus, successive dynasties came to Egypt and assumed that they were gods or their representative or spokesmen.
The Killing of the Children of Israel
The killing of the children of Israel was carried out until the experts of economics said to Pharaoh:
“The aged of the children of Israel die and the young are slaughtered. This will lead to their annihilation. As a result, Pharaoh will lose the manpower of those who work for him, those whom he enslaves, and their women whom he exploits. It is better to regulate this procedure by initiating the following policy: males should be slaughtered in one year but spared to live the next year.”
Pharaoh found that solution to be safer economically.
The Birth of Aaron and Moses (PBUT)
Moses’s mother was pregnant with Aaron (pbuh) in a year that boys were spared; thus she gave birth to the child publicly and safely. During a year in which boys were to be slain, she gave birth to Moses (pbuh); thus his birth caused her much terror. She was afraid he would be slain, so she nursed him secretly.
Description of the Pharaoh and Birth of Moses – Quranic
Allah the Almighty revealed:
“These are Verses of the manifest Book (that makes clear truth from falsehood, good from evil, etc.). We recite to you some of the news of Moses and Pharaoh in truth, for a people who believe (those who believe in this Quran, and in the Oneness of Allah). Verily, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people sects, weakening (oppressing) a group (children of Israel) among them, killing their sons, and letting their females live. Verily, he was of the Mufsideen (those who commit great sins and crimes, oppressors, tyrants, etc.).
And we wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors, and to establish them in the land, and We let Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts receive from them that which they feared. And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: “Suckle him (Moses), but when you fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not, nor grieve. Verily! We shall bring him back to you, and shall make him one of (Our) Messengers.” (Ch 28: 2-7 Quran).
The Qualities of Moses – Quranic
And when he attained his full strength, and was perfect (in manhood), We bestowed on him Hukman (Prophethood, right judgment of the affairs) and religious knowledge (of the religion of his forefathers, Islamic Monotheism). And thus do We reward the Muhsineen (good-doers).” (Ch 28:14 Quran)
Moses Begins His Prophethood – Quranic
Almighty Allah narrated this event:
“And has there come to you the story of Moses? When he saw a fire, he said to his family: “Wait! Verily, I have seen a fire, perhaps I can bring you some burning brand therefrom, or find some guidance at the fire.”
And when he came to it the fire, he was called by name: “O Moses! Verily! I am your Lord! So take off your shoes, you are in the sacred valley, Tuwa. And I have chosen you. So listen to that which is inspired to you. Verily! I am Allah! La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I), so worship Me, and offer prayers perfectly, for My Remembrance. Verily, the Hour is coming – and My Will is to keep it hidden – that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives. Therefore, let the one who believes not therein (in the Day of Resurrection, Reckoning, Paradise and Hell etc) but follows his own lusts, divert your therefrom lest you perish. And what is that in your right hand, O Moses?”
He said: “This is my stick, whereon I lean, and wherewith I beat down branches for my sheep and wherein I find other uses.”
Allah said: “Cast it down, O Moses!”
He cast it down, and behold! It was a snake, moving quickly.
Allah said: “Grasp it, and fear not, We shall return it to its former state, and press your right hand to your left side, it will come forth white and shining, and without any disease as another sign, that We may show you some of Our Greater Signs.
“Go To Pharaoh! Verily! He has transgressed (all bounds in disbelief and disobedience, and has behaved as an arrogant, and as a tyrant).” (Ch. 20: 9-24)
Moses and Aaron (PBUT) Given Their Duties – Quranic
Moses said: “O my Lord! Open for me my chest (grant me self-confidence, contentment, and boldness). And ease my task for me; and make loose the knot (the defect) from my tongue, (remove the incorrectness of my speech) that they understand my speech, and appoint for me a helper from my family, Aaron, my brother; increase my strength with him, and let him share my task (of conveying Allah’s Message and Prophethood), and we may glorify You much, and remember You much, Verily! You are of us Ever a Well-Seer.”
Allah said: “You are granted your request, O Moses! And indeed We conferred a favor on you another time before. When We inspired your mother with that which We inspired, saying: “Put him (the child) into the Tabut (a box or a case or a chest) and put him into the river (Nile), and then the river shall cast it up on the bank, and there, an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his shall take him.’ And I endured you with love from Me, in order that you maybe brought up under My Eye, when your sister went and said; “Shall I show you one who will nurse him?’ So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve. Then you did kill a man, but We saved you from a great distress and tried you with a heavy trial. Then you stayed a number of years witthe people of Midian. Then you came here according to the term which I ordained (for you), O Moses!
“And I have Istana’tuka (chosen you for My Inspiration and My Message) for Myself. Go you and your brother with My Ayat (proofs, lessons, verses, evidences, signs, revelations, etc), and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My Remembrance.
“Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, verily, he has transgressed all bounds in disbelief and disobedience and behaved as an arrogant and as a tyrant. And speak to him mildly, perhaps he
may accept admonition or fear Allah.”
They said: “Our Lord! Verily! We fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress all bounds against us.”
He (Allah) said: “Fear not, Verily! I am with you both, Hearing and Seeing. So go you both to him, and say: “Verily, we are Messengers of your Lord, so let the children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance! Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies (believes not in the Oneness of Allah, and in His Messengers, etc), and turns away’ (from the truth, and obedience of Allah).” (Ch 20:9-48 Quran).
The Death of Aaron
Aaron (pbuh) died shortly before Moses (pbuh). His people were still wandering in the wilderness when he died.
The Death of Moses
Abu Hurairah narrated: “The Angel of Death was sent to Moses (pbuh). When he came to Moses, Moses slapped him on the eye. The Angel returned to his Lord and said: ‘You have sent me to a slave who does not want to die.’ Allah said: ‘Return to him and tell him to put his hand on the back of an ox and for every hair that will come under it, he will be granted one year of life.’ Moses said: ‘O Lord! What will happen after that?’ Allah replied: ‘then death.’ Moses said: ‘Let it come now!’ Moses then requested Allah to let him die close to the Holy Land so that he would be at a distance of a stone’s throw from it.” Abu Hurairah added: “Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said: ‘If I were there, I would show you his grave below the red sandhill on the side of the road.'” (Sahih Al Bukhari)
Moses (pbuh), Prophet of Allah and the one to whom Allah spoke to directly, met his death with a contented soul and a faithful heart that looked forward to righteousness and made haste to meet with Him Who bore tidings of peace.